Botswana's DNA database was introduced in 2006.
The 2008 Interpol survey reports that 1074 individuals' DNA profiles were held in Botswana at the time of the survey. In 2011, Botswana's DNA database contained 3500 reference DNA profiles from individuals and 300 crime scene DNA profiles according to Interpol. No DNA database legislation had been adopted at that time.
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In 1989 a forensic science laboratory was established in Gaborone. The laboratory started with five scientists. At the end of 2007 it had 32. In recent years, the Botswana Police Service has acquired state of the art equipment used in the analysis of forensic evidence such as DNA, drugs, alcohol, questioned documents and firearms. The organization is in the process of acquiring databases, which are intended to provide investigation leads in cases where suspects would be unknown, including the automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) and combined DNA Index System (CODIS). For the 2007 fiscal year, the Botswana Parliament approved P2 million for the pre-construction formalities of an office block for the forensic science laboratory.<ref name="ftn1"> Government Recognizes Importance of Forensic Science in Crime Investigating, Botswana Press Agency, February 26, 2007.
In late 2007, the Sam Houston University College of Criminal Justice in the United States agreed to help the Botswana Police Service establish a national DNA database, an illicit drug detection system, and provide training in toxicology and crime scene reconstruction. A press release from the Botswana Police Service says Commissioner Thebeyame Tsimako recently visited the university to “operationalise” a memorandum of understanding signed between the two institutions in 2006. The memorandum of understanding provides for technical assistance in forensic science, law enforcement training, a graduate exchange program, and the sponsoring of Botswana police officers. According to the press release, the university has agreed to send the first team of its graduates next year, and that some police officers will go for training in the United States.<ref name="ftn2"> US College Helps Police Set Up DNA Data Base, Botswana Press Agency, October 24, 2007.
A 2008 Interpol survey reports that 1074 individuals' DNA profiles were held in Botswana at the time of the survey.