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China set up a DNA database in 2004. DNA samples are collected by regional police forces and it is unclear to what extent DNA profiles are shared nationally. A DNA database has been set up to track missing and abducted children.

Within China, Hong Kong has had a separate database since 2001, using the US CODIS profiling system.

The 2008 Interpol survey reports that 126,000 crime scene DNA profiles and 1,065,000 individuals' profiles, plus 9600 unknown/deceased DNA profiles were held in China at the time of the survey. Hong Kong had 4,161 crime scene DNA profiles and 16,235 individuals' profiles.