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China set up a DNA database in 2004. DNA samples are collected by regional police forces and it is unclear to what extent DNA profiles are shared nationally. A DNA database has been set up to track missing and abducted children.

Within China, Hong Kong has had a separate database since 2001, using the US CODIS profiling system.

The 2008 Interpol survey reports that 126,000 crime scene DNA profiles and 1,065,000 individuals' profiles, plus 9600 unknown/deceased DNA profiles were held in China at the time of the survey (Total: 1,200,600 DNA profiles). Hong Kong had 4,161 crime scene DNA profiles and 16,235 individuals' profiles. According to Interpol, China's DNA database grew to 461,513 crime scene DNA profiles, 7,701,745 reference DNA profiles from individuals, 22,718 missing persons' DNA profiles, 65,115 unidentified human remains DNA profiles and 279,999 other DNA profiles in 2011 (Total: 8,531,099 DNA profiles).

Reportedly, China's DNA database contained 20 million DNA profiles by May 2013, and 40 million by 2016, making it the largest in the world.