The Fichier National Automatisé des Empreintes Génétiques (Automated National File of Genetic Prints) is the French national DNA database. A central DNA database was first proposed in France in 1996. The following year, a bill was filed relating to the implementation of a national database for identification of child sex offenders. In June 1998, a law on the prevention of sexually-related crimes created a national DNA database. The implementation, originally planned for 1999, was finally completed in 2001. In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks on the USA in 2001, the French government increased the scope of the database to include DNA related to other serious criminal offences, such as voluntary manslaughter, criminal violence and terrorism. A further “law for interior safety” introduced on March 18, 2003 expanded the scope still further to cover almost all violent crimes to people or property, serious crimes such as drug trafficking, simple thefts, and almost all small offenses, except traffic offenses. Samples are collected both from suspects and convicted persons.
In 2016, further changes were made for counter-terrorism purposes.
As at October 1, 2003, the French national DNA database contained the DNA profiles of approximately 8,000 convicted criminals and another 3,200 suspects. In 2006, the number of entries grew to 330,000. In May 2007, this number approached 500,000 entries. In December 2009, there were 1.27 million entries. The DNA database contained DNA profiles from 280,399 convicted persons, 62,258 unmatched crime scene profiles and 934,112 suspects at end 2009. According to Interpol, the number of entries grew to 1.69 million in 2011. The DNA database contained 98,000 crime scene DNA profiles, 1,592,500 reference DNA profiles from individuals, 270 missing persons' DNA profiles and 420 other DNA profiles. At 31st August 2014, the DNA database contained DNA profiles from 2,655,381 individuals and 237, 217 unidentified traces from crime scenes.
- External links
- European Court of Human Rights: CASE OF AYCAGUER v. FRANCE (22nd June 2017)
- Bill strengthening the fight against organized crime, terrorism and their financing, and improving efficiency and guarantees of criminal procedure: accelerated procedure initiated by the Government February 3, 2016 (In French)
- Fichier National Automatisé des Empreintes Génétiques (FNAEG) Avril 2016
- Ramírez Peinado (2014) Les fichiers d’empreintes génétiques : les systèmes français et espagnol à l’égard de la Convention européenne des Droits de l’Homme
- Law No. 2016-114 authorizing the approval of the Agreement in form of an exchange of letters between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the United States of America concerning the strengthening of cooperation in criminal investigations to prevent and fight against serious crime and terrorism (22nd October 2014) (In French)
- Projet de loi accord avec le Gouvernement des États-Unis d'Amérique relatif au renforcement de la coopération en matière d'enquêtes judiciaires en vue de prévenir et de lutter contre la criminalité grave et le terrorisme Reports that the DNA database (FNAEG) contains DNA profiles from 2 655 381 individuals and 237 217 unidentified traces from crime scenes, at 31st August 2014.
- CNIL: FNAEG : Fichier national des empreintes génétiques (14th April 2014)
- Europol: France
- Refus ADN - FNAEG Site de ressources sur le refus de prélèvement génétique
- Wikepedia: Fichier national automatisé des empreintes génétiques (FNAEG)
- Wikipedia: FNAEG (French national DNA database)
- France: Code of Criminal Procedure (modified May 2016)
- Assemblee Nationale: Question on DNA database numbers (6th April 2010)
- Press articles
- MediaBask: La Cour européenne des droits de l'Homme donne raison à Jean-Michel Ayçaguer (22nd June 2017)
- 20 Minutes: Terrorisme et crime organisé: Les nouvelles mesures sécuritaires de Christiane Taubira (23rd December 2015) Reports proposal to expand DNA collection to minor offences.
- Bondy Autrement: L'incroyable mobilisation de la police pour retrouver huit chaises qu'exige la banque fraudeuse HSBC (in French)(3rd April 2015)
- Associated Press: Painstaking Recovery Mission at Treacherous Alps Crash Site (30th March 2015)
- Libération: Face à la répression, les alters ne sont pas égaux (28th October 2014)
- Le Monde Blog: Episode 23 : L’ADN d’une garde à vue (et ses dessous)(8th July 2014)
- Laboratory Equipment: France Casts DNA Dragnet in Rape Case (15th April 2014)
- Christian Science Monitor: Mass DNA sweep in privacy-loving France: Why no backlash? (15th April 2014)
- Laboratory Equipment: France Casts DNA Dragnet in Rape Case (15th April 2014)
- Le Monde: Tarnac: un homme jugé pour refus de donner son ADN, déjà prélevé à son insu (5th February 2014)
- Slate: Abdelhakim Dekhar: pourquoi son ADN n'a-t-il pas parlé avant? (21st November 2013)
- La Croix Le fichage génétique, jusqu’où?(17th June 2013)
- LDH Toulon: la condamnation de Xavier Mathieu confirme les derives du fichage a l'ADN (4th February 2012)
- Télérama: Un jugement confirme les dérives du fichage génétique(3rd February 2012)
- L'Info'OGM: FRANCE - Fichage génétique : les Faucheurs d’OGM refusent d’abandonner leur plainte contre de l’argent (November 2011)
- Le Point: Vers une loi interdisant le fichage génétique des militants(25th March 2011)
- The Lift: French national DNA database found constitutional with reservations (5th October 2010)
- Le Monde: Ouvrez la bouche, vous êtes fiché (18th September 2009)
- Lexpress: Immigration en France : Le ministre Besson pour l'abandon des tests ADN (14th September 2009)
- Le Monde: A 8 et 11 ans, ils sont menaces de fichage genetique pour vol de jouets (5th May 2007)
I. Law on Point
Code of Criminal Procedure<ref name="ftn1"> Code of Criminal Procedure (hereinafter “C. Pr. Pén.”), Book III, Title XX [Du fichier national automatisé des empreintes génétiques] [The National Computerized Genetic Information Database] (Fr.).
Law No. 98-468 of June 17, 1998<ref name="ftn2"> Law No. 98-468 of June 17, 1998, Journal Officiel de la République Française [J.O.] [Official Gazette of France] June 18, 1998, p. 9255 (Fr.).
Law No. 2001-1062 of November 15, 2001<ref name="ftn3"> Law No. 2001-1062 of November 15, 2001, Journal Officiel de la République Française [J.O.] [Official Gazette of France] November 16, 2001, p. 18215 (Fr.).
Law No. 2003-239 of March 18, 2003<ref name="ftn4"> Law No. 2003-239 of March 18, 2003, Journal Officiel de la République Française [J.O.] [Official Gazette of France], March 19, 2003, p. 4761 (Fr.).
Decree No. 2000-413 of May 18, 2000<ref name="ftn5"> Decree No. 2000-413 of May 18, 2000, Journal Officiel de la République Française [J.O.] [Official Gazette of France], May 19, 2000, Text No. 16 (Fr.).
Decree No. 2002-697 of April 30, 2002<ref name="ftn6"> Decree No. 2002-697 of April 30, 2002, Journal Officiel de la République Française [J.O.] [Official Gazette of France], May 3, 2002, Text No. 69 (Fr.).
Decree No. 2004-470 of May 25, 2004<ref name="ftn7"> Decree No. 2004-470 of May 25, 2004, Journal Officiel de la République Française [J.O.] [Official Gazette of France], June 2, 2004, Text No. 21 (Fr.).
Decree No. 2004-71 of May 25, 2004<ref name="ftn8"> Decree No. 2004-471 of May 25, 2004, Journal Officiel de la République Française [J.O.] [Official Gazette of France], June 2, 2004, Text No. 22 (Fr.).
Decree No. 2009-785 of June 23, 2009.<ref name="ftn9"> Decree No. 2009-785 of June 23, 2009, Journal Officiel de la République Française [J.O.] [Official Gazette of France], June 25, 2009, Text No. 16 (Fr.).
Deliberation No. 2008-113 of May 14, 2008<ref name="ftn10"> Deliberation No. 2008-113 of May 14, 2008, Journal Officiel de la République Française [J.O.] [Official Gazette of France], June 25, 2009, Text No. 98 (Fr.).
Circular of the Ministry of Justice of 27 July 2004<ref name="ftn11"> E.U. 9445/1/06 at 6.
II. Entry Criteria
Persons convicted of or charged with a serious offence (list in law) and crime scene stains when deemed relevant<ref name="ftn12"> See EU Current Practices at 49.
French law provides that genetic profiles of persons convicted of one certain enumerated offences are to be entered onto the Fichier National Automatisé des Empreintes Génétiques [Automated National Database of Genetic Fingerprints] (hereinafter “FNAEG”). <ref name="ftn13"> C. Pr. Pén., Book III, Title XX, Art. 706-55.
</ref> The crimes specificed are: (1) offences of a sexual nature;<ref name="ftn14"> See C. Pr. Pén., Art. 706-47; Penal Code (hereinafter “C. Pén.”) Art. 222-32.
</ref> (2) crimes against humanity, felonies involving intentional attacks on human life, torture and acts of barbarity, intentional violent acts, threatening personal violence, drug trafficking, offences against human liberty, human trafficking, procuring, the exploitation of begging, and the endangerment of minors;<ref name="ftn15"> See C. Pén., Arts. 221-1 to 221-5, 222-1 to 222-18, 222-34 to 222-40, 224-1 to 224-8, 225-4-1 to 225-4-4, 225-5 to 225-10, 225-12-1 to 225-12-3, 225-12-5 to 225-12-7 and 227-18 to 227-21.
</ref> (3) felonies and misdemeanors which constitute theft, extortion, fraud, destruction, damage and threats to attack property;<ref name="ftn16"> See C. Pén., Arts. 311-1 to 311-13, 312-1 to 312-9, 313-2 and 322-1 to 322-14.
</ref> (4) violations of the fundamental interests of the nation, terrorist acts, forging currency, and criminal associations;<ref name="ftn17"> See C. Pén., Arts. 410-1 to 413-12, 421-1 to 421-4, 442-1 to 442-5 and 450-1.
</ref> (5) certain other misdemeanors;<ref name="ftn18"> See Defense Code, Arts. L 2353-4 and L 2339-1 to L 2339-11.
</ref> and (6) offences relating to handling or laundering of the proceeds of crimes included in numbers (1) to (5).<ref name="ftn19"> See C. Pén., Arts. 321-1 to 321-7 and 324-1 to 324-6.
The DNA profiles of persons against whom there is serious or corroborating evidence rendering it likely that they have committed any of the offences mentioned above are also stored in this database by order of the judicial police officer either automatically or at the request of the district prosecutor or of the investigating judge. <ref name="ftn20"> C. Pr. Pén., Art. 706-54.
</ref> French law also permits genetic profiles derived from unidentified crime scene stains collected during the investigation into causes of death or missing persons to be store in FNAEG . <ref name="ftn21"> C. Pr. Pén., Art. 706-54.
III. Sample Collection
French law permits any district prosecutor, upon written order, to compel a genetic sample from any person sentenced to imprisonment for not less than ten years for analysis and inclusion in FNAEG. <ref name="ftn22"> C. Pr. Pén., Art. 706-56, § 1.
</ref> In all other cases, refusal to consent to DNA sampling is publishable by up to one year in prison and a fine of €15,000.<ref name="ftn23"> C. Pr. Pén., Art. 706-56, § 2.
</ref> When the underlying offense has been allegedly committed by a person already convicted of a felony, refusal to submit to the taking of a DNA sample is publishable to up to two years in prison and a fine of €30,000.<ref name="ftn24"> 127147682, Art. 706-56, § 2.
</ref> Thus, while the law is tetchily silent on the question of consent,<ref name="ftn25"> The one exception being that mentioned previously admitting of the coercive taking of a sample from anyone sentenced to more than ten years imprisonment.
</ref> refusal to consent is optional in only the most illusory of senses.
IV. Removal Criteria
Convicted persons’ profiles are kept for forty years after conviction upon their eightieth birthday, suspects’ profiles are removed by motion of the prosecutor or the individual upon grounds that their storage no longer serves its original purpose, and crime scene stains are deleted forty years after they have been analyzed<ref name="ftn26"> See EU Current Practices at 49-50.
</ref> French law directs that the genetic profiles of persons suspected of the above-enumerated crimes can be erased on any district prosecutor’s instructions, either on their own initiative or at the request of the suspect, where keeping them is no longer necessary in light of the reason for which they were created. <ref name="ftn27"> C. Pr. Pén., Art. 706-54.
</ref> For example, a suspects’ profile must be removed when insufficient evidence is produced linking him or her to the suspected crime or in the case that they are ultimately acquitted of all charges. Convicted offenders’ profiles are removed from the database forty years after their conviction or when they reach the age of eighty years. DNA profiles which are derived from unidentified biological material are removed forty years after analysis.<ref name="ftn28"> See EU Current Practices at 50.
V. Sample Retention
Convicted persons’ samples are retained for forty years after their conviction or until their eightieth birthday; suspects’ samples are kept until conviction or acquittal: i.e. procedurally, DNA samples are treated as regular evidence<ref name="ftn29"> See EU Current Practices at 50.
VI. Database Access
Decisions regarding database access are made by the Direction Centrale de la Police Judiciaire—Sous Direction de la Police Technique et Scientifique [Central Directorate of the Judicial Police—Sub-directorate of the Technical and Scientific Police].<ref name="ftn30"> “Il existe également un comité de contrôle composé d’un magistrat du parquet hors hiérarchie assisté de trois spécialistes (un magistrat, un informaticien et un généticien) qui s’assure du bon fonctionnement du fichier conformément à la législation en vigueur.” E.U. 9445/1/06 at [***n.***]
</ref> Judicial police officers have only access to the identity, place of birth and the date of birth. Judicial police officers and magistrates are also informed on the matches that might be found in the database. DNA profiles can be exchanged with the other EU Member States through Interpol or rogatory letters on the condition of legal compatibility. As France has signed the Convention of Prüm, it will have automatic access to the database of its contracting partners in the near future. FNAET is an Oracle database with WEB architecture.